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PROTECTING THE ENVIRONMENT

NATALYA SHUMKOVA
ВChief Operating Officer for Nuclear and Radiation Safety,Research and Technology SE NNEGC Energoatom

The continued search for alternatives to high-carbon energy sources to mitigate the environmental footprint of the energy sector suggests that today no other power generation industry can compete with nuclear power generation either by production capacity or by minimal impact on the environment and climate.


Implementation of the world’s best practices of nuclear power plant operation and the use of modern and environmentally friendly technologies pay dividends. Therefore, operating Ukrainian NPPs are an example of safe, high-tech and reliable electricity production. One of the Company's priorities is to reduce the environmental footprint of nuclear power units. In 2017, SE NNEGC Energoatom implemented measures to secure the rational use of natural resources, prevent environmental hazards, control natural environments, improve the Company’s environmental management system and raise environmental awareness among Energoatom employees and the broad public in areas where NPPs are located.


The Company continued to pursue its environmental policy and achieve its goals. Primarily, this related to the prevention of violations of hygiene and environmental standards for air emissions, land and water pollutants, as well as for their content in natural environments.


In 2017, Energoatom was one of the first Ukrainian companies to certify its integrated management system in line with new ISO standards 2015, including ISO 14001:2015 “Environmental management systems”. Our findings show that the level of nuclear, radiation and ecological safety at Ukrainian NPPs is fully in line with the national and international laws on the nuclear power use, including European directives.


Energoatom is never complacent with its achievements and continues to improve its operations and actions. Reconstruction, state-of-the-art automatic control systems, modernisation of analytical laboratory equipment, continuous updating of environmental aspects and environmental impact assessment for power units are only some of the measures we take to achieve the Company's environmental goals.

ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Environmental protection and minimisation of environmental footprint at all stages of nuclear energy production are among the key priorities of Energoatom. Environmental protection is in the limelight of the Company's Statement of Policy.


    Energoatom’s key principles of environmental protection and rational use of natural resources:
  • Ensure compliance with standards for air emissions, water pollutants and the content of radioactive substances in natural environments.
  • Apply modern proven technologies and equipment to better assess the environmental impact and minimise the negative environmental footprint of nuclear power plants.
  • Prevent violations of normal operation and emergencies using continuous operation analysis at NPPs.
  • Ensure high level of energy efficiency to foster the Company’s competitiveness in the electricity generation market.
  • Implement innovative technologies in the Company's operations.

Energoatom adheres to Ukrainian environmental laws, principles of European environmental laws and EU Directives on environmental protection, as well as to international standards (IAEA) and Energoatom Environmental Action Programme 2017-2019. Environmental Policy is Energoatom’s underlying document shaping the Company's environmental safety management system. The goal of the policy is to ensure environmental safety in production, reduce the man-caused environmental impacts and preserve natural systems in the areas where nuclear energy facilities are based. Key principles of Energoatom's Environmental Policy have not changed since the publication of our previous report.


Energoatom set a number of environmental goals for 2017. The goals included improvement and development of the integrated management system (safety, quality, environment and occupational safety) in an effort to ensure the high safety of the Company’s operations:

ENERGOATOM’S ENVIRONMENTAL GOALS

GOALS (OBJECTIVES)

Ensure that the Company does not exceed permissible limits for the content of pollutants in natural environments


Reduce hazardous waste generation


Ensure that the Company does not exceed permissible limits for gas and aerosol emissions and radioactive discharges into water





Provide NPPs with tritium and radioactive carbon (14C) emission control systems

WAYS TO ACHIEVEMENT

  • Conducting chemical control over the state of the environment;
  • Conducting internal environmental audits;
  • Managing environmental aspects

Replacing fluorescent lamps containing dangerous substances (where the lamps are out of order or expired) on an ongoing basis

  • Setting the reference and technological levels of emissions and discharges of radioactive substances;
  • Analysing causes of possible exceedance of the reference and technological levels in NPP operations;
  • Using modern technologies and equipment to reduce emissions and discharges

Rolling out programmes for the upgrade of radiation monitoring systems at NPPs;
Introducing state-of-the-art equipment for tritium and radioactive carbon (14C) emission monitoring;
Analysing findings to identify key sources of emissions; Setting the reference and technological levels for tritium and radioactive carbon (14C) emissions

PERFORMANCE INDICATORS

Compliance with the maximum allowable limits of emissions and discharges – no exceedance of limits identified


Replacement of 10% of fluorescent lamps with more energy-efficient and safe LED lamps – done

Zero incident – done







Zero incident – done
Non-exceedance of reference and technological levels for tritium and radioactive carbon (14C) emissions at NPPs – done

In 2017, the national environmental supervision agencies imposed no penalties or environmental damage claims against the Company and its separate subdivisions.

INTRODUCING INTERNATIONAL APPROACHES TO ENVIRONMENTAL SAFETY MANAGEMENT

The Company's environmental management system conforms with ISO 14001 series of standards. The conformity is annually assessed and certified by TUV independent international certification agency. In 2017, this system was certified in accordance with ISO 2015. In particular, the agency reviewed the achievement of Energoatom’s environmental goals set for 2017.


Environmental aspects of operations were reassessed and appropriate tools for environmental management were updated (especially for significant environmental aspects) at each separate subdivision of the Company. Such reassessment was based both on findings of internal audits (the Company conducted over 50 audits in 2017) and on the requirements of the planned review of production documentation.

COMPANY’S ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT

In 2017, Ukraine put the Law On Environmental Impact Assessment into force, establishing new legal and organisational principles of environmental impact assessment. This environmental impact assessment (EIA) seeks to prevent environmental damage, ensure environmental safety, protect the environment, ensure prudent use and reproduction of natural resources and proceed from these goals in decisions on business operations that can have a significant impact on the environment, taking national, public and private interests into account.


In a move to comply with the requirements of this Law, the Company has already started the relevant procedures for three projects: environmental impact assessment of operation of power units at Rivne NPP, construction of power units No. 3 and No. 4 at Khmelnytska NPP, and completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant at South-Ukraine Energy Generating Complex. In addition, Energoatom obtained in 2017 a positive opinion on the Ministry of Environmental Protection on the environmental impact of the construction of the Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility in Ukraine.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR CONSTRUCTION OF THE CENTRAL SPENT FUEL STORAGE FACILITY

In 2017, the Company received a positive environmental review opinion from the Ministry for Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine for the construction of the Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility, with a full environmental impact assessment of the facility taking place in 2008.


    The conclusions were that:
  • the environmental impact of operations of the Central Spent Fuel Storage Facility will not exceed the current environmental indicators and hygiene standards in the Exclusion Area and the evacuation area and can be considered acceptable in accordance with the reference levels;
  • the risk of non-carcinogenic effects is extremely low, the likelihood of harmful effects increases in proportion to the increase of risk factors for individual substances; the risk of carcinogenic effects on the public health is conditionally acceptable;
  • in a design mode, the impact of scheduled operations on the environment and population will not exceed the current hygienic standards set by the Radiation Safety Standards in Ukraine;
  • calculations of the risk of air emissions for the public health show that the environmental impact of the planned operations is permissible;
  • measures envisaged by the project will have acceptable residual impacts on all components of the environment;
  • the Environmental Impact Assessment materials, in particular regarding the final impact, were accepted and deemed permissible;
  • taking into account the submitted EIA materials and planned organisational, technical and environmental measures, the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine considered it possible to recognise the environmental feasibility of decisions described in the materials and to give a positive opinion subject to compliance with environmental laws of Ukraine.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR COMPLETION OF HYDROELECTRIC UNITS AT TASHLYK HYDROELECTRIC PUMPED STORAGE POWER PLANT

In 2017, we continued the environmental impact assessment for completion of hydroelectric units at Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant. South-Ukraine NPP and an organisation conducting the environmental impact assessment held a series of public discussions of this issue. In December 2017, the Law of Ukraine On Environmental Impact Assessment took effect, and Energoatom decided to conduct a new environmental impact assessment procedure. We reported our planned EIA activities in the EIA Registry under No. 2018416564.


As part of the project "Completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant", we posted an Environmental Impact Statement26 in regard to raising the full reservoir level of Olexandrivske reservoir to 20.7 m on our website.


    Key EIA conclusions are as follows:
  1. Despite the significant overflow of reservoirs and extensive economic activity in the basin of the Southern Buh, the river's water content has not decreased for the long-term period.
  2. The absolute values of physicochemical characteristics of water have hardly changed during the entire period of operation of Olexandrivske reservoir and the first stage of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant. This proves that the operation of Tashlyk Plant and adjacent infrastructure does not affect the chemical composition of water in the Southern Buh River. No difference in any indicator was found between the upper and lower parts of water in the supervised part of the Southern Buh River.
  3. The sanitary and hygienic conditions of open waters in Tashlyk HPSPP’s impact area are generally characterised as moderately unfavourable. The construction and operation of Tashlyk Plant are not the main factors contributing to the existing sanitary and hygienic condition of these reservoirs. Raising the water level facilitated the self-cleaning process in the aquatic environment. In general, there are some improvements in a number of water quality indicators in the Southern Buh River below Olexandrivska Hydro Power Plant.
  4. Monitoring observations confirm the design data on the absence of dangerous processes that can threaten settlements located on the shore of the reservoir.
  5. The 2005-2014 monitoring data on exogeodynamic processes in the impact areas of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant and Olexandrivske reservoir show that erosive, sliding and abrasive processes are the most unfavourable for operation of Olexandrivske reservoir. The processes bring additional debris to the reservoir.
  6. Findings of radioecological control of water bodies and adjacent territories of Granitno-Stepove Pobuzhya Regional Landscape Park confirm their generally satisfactory state by all control indicators and the absence of negative impact on the construction and commissioning of infrastructure facilities at Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant.
  7. Natural observations have identified 49 species of vascular plants with international, national and regional sozological statuses and about 300 species of vertebrate animals representing four classes. In total, 31 species of terrestrial insects, 3 species of fish, 3 species of reptiles, 19 species of birds and 7 species of mammals listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine are registered in the impact area of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant. Raising the level of Olexandrivske reservoir to +20.7 m will not lead to significant changes in the populations of rare species.
  8. Monitoring observations show that the full and stable level of Olexandrivske reservoir reduces synantropisation processes in natural floristic complexes and invasive processes in the region.

Energoatom is committed to implementing design concepts in accordance with environmental standards at all stages of the project "Completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant" and guarantees compliance with environmental requirements.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT FOR COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS

Energoatom takes effective outreach efforts to highlight the main events related to the implementation of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs and special terms and conditions of guarantee agreements that require environmental and social measures. In particular, in 2017 Energoatom obtained approval of the 2012-2016 findings of another environmental impact assessment for the Programme in a move to comply with international loan agreements with EBRD and Euratom. This was the second assessment, with the first one taking place in 2011. Upon request of Energoatom, the EIA was conducted by the State Ecological Academy of Postgraduate Education and Management under the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine.


The EIA has shown that the implementation of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs does not increase the environmental impact, but rather reduces the risk of emergencies. The assessment results were presented at public meetings in Kyiv and at eachNPP on 1-8 June 2017 that brought together 198 participants. Recommendations and comments from representatives of the public were considered and included in an updated Environmental Assessment Report.


The Environmental Impact Assessment showed that thermal radiation is the key impact of nuclear power plants on the environment in a thirty-kilometre supervised area. As the Programme is not designed to increase the capacity of NPPs, its implementation should not result in significant increase or decrease in the thermal radiation, water evaporation and dust emissions from NPPs or change the volume of water used for cooling purposes. In addition, the measures taken under the Programme in 2012-2016 did not use more transport vehicles and thus did not generate more air emissions from the mobile sources. The installation of the new seismic monitoring equipment was the only type of work carried out outside the territory of NPPs. The measure required land allotment, but did not change the purpose of these lands.

    THE ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT SHOW THAT:
  • THE CONTENT OF POLLUTANTS AND RADIONUCLIDES IN NATURAL ENVIRONMENTS DOES NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LIMITS ESTABLISHED BY REGULATORY ACTS;
  • AIR EMISSIONS AND DISCHARGES OF POLLUTANTS DO NOT EXCEED THE MAXIMUM PERMISSIBLE LIMITS ESTABLISHED BY RELEVANT PERMITS;
  • AIR EMISSIONS AND DISCHARGES OF POLLUTANTS AND RADIONUCLIDES DO NOT LEAD TO DETERIORATION OF THE AIR QUALITY;
  • MEASURES UNDER THE COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS DO NOT LEAD TO ANY INCREASE IN THE ANTHROPOGENIC BURDEN.


THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS REDUCES THE RISKS OF EMERGENCIES AND ACCIDENTS AT NPPS AND THUS THE RISK OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION. IN ADDITION, CERTAIN MEASURES UNDER THE PROGRAMME WILL ALSO HELP MITIGATE THE CONSEQUENCES OF ACCIDENTS AND REDUCE POTENTIAL EMISSIONS OF RADIOACTIVE AND NON-RADIOACTIVE POLLUTANTS. THIS PROVES A POSITIVE IMPACT OF THE PROGRAMME ON THE ENVIRONMENT.

CROSS-BORDER CONSULTATIONS UNDER THE ESPOO CONVENTION

In 2017, the Company started cross-border consultations with the Affected Parties under the Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment in a Transboundary Context (the Espoo Convention) in relation to findings and conclusions of the environmental impact assessments at Zaporizhzhya NPP and South-Ukraine NPP.


    In the course of consultations, Energoatom received the following comments:
  • full sets of EIA materials should be provided to the parties of cross-border consultations, as well as the translation of the materials into English;
  • consultations should be held directly in the territory of the Affected/Concerned Parties;
  • there should be health and environmental impact assessments for beyond design-basis accidents with due account for the Fukushima accident;
  • the parties should exchange information on monitoring findings and notify others in case of emergencies and accidents;
  • the parties should share practices of nuclear fuel diversification and radioactive waste and spent fuel treatment;
  • the Company should rely on EIA conclusions when extending the operation of power units at Ukrainian NPPs.

In late October 2017, the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine invited the Affected Parties (the Slovak Republic, Romania, Poland, Belarus, Moldova and Hungary) and Concerned Parties (Germany and Austria) to participate in cross-border consultations. The first consultations with Romania, Poland and Moldova took place at the Aarhus Centre of the Ministry in Kyiv on 23 November 2017. During the meetings, the Company's specialists and representatives of organisations that carried out the environmental impact presented the key EIA findings on power units at Zaporizhzhya NPP and South-Ukraine NPP and answered all questions of the Affected Parties.


The meeting resulted in a relevant Protocol drafted and signed by the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine and Energoatom, as well as in a Report posted on the Company’s website at Home/Activities/Nuclear Safety and Ecology/Environmental Safety.

ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND EFFECTIVE USE OF RESOURCES

Rational use of energy and other resources plays an important role for Energoatom. Replacement of old equipment with modern and energy-saving technologies is a part of the Company's policy and most of the measures of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs. Energoatom’s energy efficiency efforts also involve the use of electric and thermal power in line with safety standards to cover in-house needs because this power is cost-effective.


The purpose of energy management at the Company is to create the enabling environment to reduce costs through the systemwide management of energy resources and the upgrade of facilities at separate subdivisions of Energoatom.


Over the reporting period, we had no significant changes in the field of energy efficiency and energy saving. The Company planned to replace 10% of fluorescent mercury-containing lamps with LED lamps for 2017 and achieved this goal. The improvement of the reliability of electrical equipment and the replacement of measuring equipment and electrical energy meters were also among the main energy efficiency measures of the Company.


In addition to energy efficiency measures in the course of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs, the Company is implementing an action plan for enhancing the reliability of steam generators and condensers of turbine installations in 2014-2020. The action plan provides for a 4-5% increase in the utilisation rate, the extension of lifecycle of steam generators up to 40-50 years and reduction of up to 50% in operational expenses for chemical products.

ENERGY EFFICIENT MEASURES AT NPPS IN 2017

Zaporizhzhya NPP replaced 4,459 incandescent lamps with energy-saving ones, as well as a condenser at power unit No. 3. In addition, the Company decided to build a 13.2 MW solar power plant at the plant’s site. A land plot of 34.7 hectares was allotted for the construction.

Rivne NPP operated an energy management system in line with ISO 50001:2014. As part of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs, Energoatom upgraded a system of normal operation of the turbine house for power unit 3 of Rivne NPP: the number of cabinets for unified hardware system was reduced from 131 to 61. Such a decrease in the number resulted in lower average power consumption by the system: from 114,440 W to 12,425 W. The total energy savings from relevant measures in the field of water supply amounted to 9,126 kWh in 2017.

South-Ukraine NPP replaced 934 incandescent lamps with LED lamps and installed 1,200 LED lamps instead of daylight lamps.

Khmelnytska NPP replaced 1,050 incandescent lamps with energysaving ones, 17 fluorescent lamps with LED lamps, saving 1,085 kWh.



MANAGING AIR QUALITY

Nuclear power plants have no significant impact on air. As the previous non-financial report disclosed, the main sources of air emissions at the NPP sites are stand-by boiler plants, diesel generators, motor vehicles and other auxiliary facilities.


There were no significant changes in Energoatom’s approaches to reduce the footprint on the air quality compared with the data in Non- Financial Report 2016. The Company conducts the environmental monitoring of the air quality in accordance with the regulations, instructions and schedules made with due regard to environmental laws of Ukraine.


Inventory of stationary and mobile sources of emissions and measures of air protection from emissions from the Company's facilities are conducted in accordance with the requirements of the applicable environmental laws of Ukraine. Air protection from chemicals from stationary and mobile sources is regulated by the Law of Ukraine On Environmental Protection.


In 2017, the main fundamental change in the air protection system was the adjustment of the inventory of emissions from stationary sources in order to specify the number of sources and their technical characteristics.

ENERGOATOM EMISSIONS, 2017, TONNES


Compared with 2016, there was a significant decrease (almost twofold drop) in total emissions of sulfur compounds, from 6.43 tonnes to 3.37 tonnes. Total air emissions decreased by 4.09 tonnes.

PRUDENT USE OF WATER RESOURCES

Energoatom takes actions to protect water resources from pollution by chemicals in accordance with the Law of Ukraine On Environmental Protection, the Water Code of Ukraine, resolutions of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine and other sectoral standards and technical documents. In 2017, there were no major changes in the system of water resource protection and water use compared with the previous report.


In 2017, the Company continued a project that could have an impact on the water use at South-Ukraine Electric Power Generating Complex: completion of hydroelectric units No. 3-6 at Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant with a gradual increase of the level of Olexandrivske reservoir on the Southern Buh River to +20.7 m and an increase in the useful capacity to 72.6 million cubic meters.


Olexandrivske reservoir is a part of South-Ukraine Electric Power Generating Complex, making a lower reservoir of Tashlyk HPSPP. The water rise in Olexandrivske reservoir to the mark of +20.7 m contributes to the social and economic development of Ukraine and provides a real opportunity to cover water needs in Mykolaiv Oblast. For the environmental impact assessment for this project, please see the subsection on EIA of the Company’s projects.

USE OF POTABLE AND SERVICE WATER BY ENERGOATOM, 2014-2017, THOUSAND CUBIC METRES

NAME

WATER SOURCE

THOUSAND CUBIC METRES

2014

2015

2016

2017

Zaporizhzhya NPP

Artesian water

878*/685**

766*/609**

809*/674**

834*/709**

TPP's channel (Dnipro River)

346,261

364,838

323,870

343,086

Rivne NPP

Water well in Ostriv village

1,705+/285**

1,700+/385**

1,632+/531**

1,607+/590**

Styr River

54,547

55,849

50,063

58,493

South-Ukraine NPP

Tap water

605**

610**

495**

517**

Southern Buh River

71,478

60,981

60,108

54,068

Khmelnytska NPP

Artesian water

1,738*/1,179**

1,429*/953**

1,276*/853**

1,246*/1,031**

Hnyly Rih River, Horyn River

18,807

22,233

37,206

37,673

Energoatom

Potable

2,754**

2,557**

2,553**

4,211*/2,847**

Service

471,247

503,901

491,093

493,320

Note

* - total volume taken from natural sources, including water losses during transportation to satellite localities (which losses are attributed to NPPs' expenses) and water volumes used for NPPs’ auxiliary facilities

** - used directly on production sites of NPPs

+ - total volumes taken from artesian water wells

WATER USE AT ENERGOATOM NPPS, 2014-2016, THOUSAND CUBIC METRES


LAND PROTECTION

Prevention of pollution of land resources in localities where nuclear power plants are based is one of the focus areas of Energoatom’s Environmental Policy. Approaches to minimising the footprint of the Company's operations on soil and land have remained unchanged since previous years. The primary focus is on prevention of land pollution with any kind of waste, as well as on thorough ecological and chemical control of land resources, especially in places of industrial waste disposal.


For more about the Company's land conservation policy, see our Non-Financial Report 2016 (Land Reclamation subsection in the Environmental Responsibility section). We did not implement any additional land reclamation projects in 2017.

WASTE MANAGEMENT

NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT

Energoatom’s approaches to non-radioactive waste management are in line with the laws of Ukraine On Environmental Protection, On Waste, ISO 14001 requirements, the Company's Environmental Policy and best practices of waste management, in particular in EU countries.


In the course of production processes, nuclear power plants generate waste placed by the Company in special areas. For waste of Hazard Class 4, the disposal places are landfills of solid household waste, sludge platforms and sludge dumps. Energoatom has obtained a necessary licence (permit) from the Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources to manage hazardous waste generated during the Company's operations. The permit covers such operations as collection, storage, disposal and removal of hazardous waste at NPP sites.


The Company had targeted to replace 10% of fluorescent mercurycontaining lamps with LED lamps in 2017 and achieved the target. This initiative and a number of safety improvement, construction and reconstruction somewhat raised the level of non-radioactive waste generation in 2017.

NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTE, 2014-2017, TONNES


WASTE BY HAZARD CLASS, 2017

Zaporizhzhya NPP

Rivne NPP

South-Ukraine NPP

Khmelnytska NPP

COMPANY’S TOTAL

Hazard class 1

mercury-containing exhausted fluorescent lamps, pieces

28,842

16,384

16,148

8,426

69,800

Hazard class 2

exhausted accumulator batteries, used lubricants and sludge, tonnes

46.444

26.256

142.013

51.460

266,173

Hazard class 3

spent oil products, oil contaminated sand, oil sludge, oily rags, filters, tonnes

57.728

6.643

1,004.83

86.068

1,155.269

Hazard class 4

industrial, construction, utility waste, tonnes

7,697

28,503

874

1,797

38,871

RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT

Safety of radioactive waste management is an important factor contributing to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. The safe radioactive waste management rests on compliance with requirements of laws, licence terms and measures of the Company's Comprehensive Programme for Radioactive Waste Management. The fundamental principles of radioactive waste management at nuclear power plants are minimisation of waste generation and interconnection of all waste treatment stages, from generation to burial. This is confirmed by statistics about RAW generation at Energoatom.


    The Company’s nuclear power plants generated the following radioactive waste in 2017:

    1. Liquid radioactive waste (LRW):
  • Evaporator concentrate – 1,210 m3;
  • Spent filtering materials and sludge – 9 m3;
  • Salt melt (recycled evaporator concentrate) – 281 m3;
  • dehydrated sludge – 12 m3.

  • 2. Solid radioactive waste (SRW):
  • Low-level waste (LLW) – 1,268 m3 (1,173 m3 treated at existing facilities);
  • middle-level waste (MLW) – 48 m3;
  • high-level waste (HLW) – 4.7 m3.

Currently, radioactive waste is temporarily stored at the NPP sites in specially designed storage facilities in compliance with the requirements, norms, rules and standards of nuclear and radiation safety.

LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE, M3


SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE, M3



AT ENERGOATOM, RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IS IN ACCORDANCE WITH:

  • UKRAINE ENERGY STRATEGY 2035 “SAFETY, ENERGY EFFICIENCY, COMPETITIVENESS”30;
  • STRATEGY OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT IN UKRAINE31;
  • ENERGOATOM’S COMPREHENSIVE RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT PROGRAMME 2017-2021.


THE COMPREHENSIVE PROGRAMME 2017-2021 PROVIDES FOR:

  • CONSTRUCTION AND COMMISSIONING OF COMPLEX LINES FOR RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT TO FURTHER TRANSFER RAW FOR LONG-TERM STORAGE/DISPOSAL TO THE CENTRAL STORAGE FACILITIES AT VECTOR FACILITY IN THE EXCLUSION ZONE;
  • EFFICIENT AND ECONOMICALLY FEASIBLE TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RAW TREATMENT;
  • UPGRADE OF EXISTING FACILITIES AND CONSTRUCTION OF NEW PLANTS FOR LIQUID AND SOLID RAW TREATMENT;
  • DEVELOPMENT OF A RAW CERTIFICATION SYSTEM;
  • IMPROVEMENTS IN THE CONTAINER FLEET FOR COLLECTION, TRANSPORTATION, STORAGE AND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE;
  • DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A TRANSPORT AND TECHNOLOGY ARRANGEMENT TO TRANSPORT RAW FROM NPPS TO SPECIALISED RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT ENTERPRISES.

SOLID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT FLOW CHART

LIQUID RADIOACTIVE WASTE TREATMENT FLOW CHART



Liquid radioactive waste is stored in metal sealed stainless steel containers equipped with an automatic level detection and leak alarm system. Solid RAW is collected in the places of its generation, sorted by category and transported for temporary storage to solid RAW storage facilities. The storage compartments at NPPs are equipped with fire alarm system, automatic fire extinguishing systems, exhaust ventilation and air purification systems.

ENERGOATOM IS A MAJOR TAXPAYER TO THE NATIONAL RAW TREATMENT FUND, PAYING UAH 0 .288 BILLION IN THE TAXES OVER 2009-2017.

In 2017, Energoatom started pilot operation of complex lines for radioactive waste treatment at Zaporizhzhya NPP and Rivne NPP, in particular RAW generated from extension of the lifecycle of power units and from future decommissioning of power units. On 20 December 2017, Rivne NPP unveiled Ukraine’s first RAW treatment facility for operating NPPs and started the first stage of testing with RAW simulators (cold tests). The second stage of testing with real RAW (hot tests) will start on 11 June 2018. Ukraine’s first-ever RAW treatment facility with modern equipment is a significant step forward in the nuclear power sector, contributing to higher safety at NPPs and to the environmental protection.


On 27 December 2017, Zaporizhzhya NPP put complex lines for radioactive waste treatment into pilot operation. The plant is set to test and commission the facility in 2018. Khmelnytska NPP plans to build complex lines for radioactive waste treatment during 2017-2021 years, while South-Ukraine NPP, during 2019- 2023.


Taking into account the high priority of RAW management measures, projects for complex lines for radioactive waste treatment at Zaporizhzhya NPP and Rivne NPP were included into the TACIS programme. Under the programme, technical assistance for the supply of RAW treatment equipment for Zaporizhzhya NPP and Rivne NPP totalled €21.4 million, including €12.567 million for Zaporizhzhya NPP and €8.81 million for Rivne NPP.

WITHOUT SUCH A FACILITY FOR RAW TREATMENT LIKE COMPLEX LINES AT RIVNE NPP, NO UKRAINIAN NPP CAN THINK OF ITS FUTURE. THANKS TO JOINT EFFORTS AND TEAMWORK OF RIVNE NPP EMPLOYEES, AN IMPORTANT, RELEVANT AND UP-TO-DATE PROJECT HAS BEEN SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENTED. OLEXANDR SHAVLAKOV, FIRST VICE PRESIDENT – TECHNICAL DIRECTOR OF ENERGOATOM

MANAGING BIODIVERSITY

Energoatom strictly complies with the requirements of environmental legislation regarding the conservation of biodiversity in the territories of the Company's footprint and takes into account the results of public discussions of its planned operations, as required by the current laws of Ukraine and international agreements in the area of environmental impact assessment.


Currently, the greatest impact on biodiversity is estimated to be from the project for completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant. As the initiative involves construction of hydroelectric units No. 3-6 and a gradual increase in the level of Olexandrivske reservoir to +20.7 m, the Company implements a range of measures to preserve the flora and fauna of Buzky Gard National Park and Granitno-Stepove Pobuzhya Regional Landscape Park.


In the project’s impact area, natural observations found 49 species of vascular plants with international, national and regional sozological statuses, as they are listed in the Red Data Book of Ukraine (23 species), List of Vascular Plants of Special Concern in Mykolaiv Oblast (19 species), European Redlist of Near-Threatened Animals and Plants (8 species), the World’s Red List of Threatened Plants (7 species). There are also about 300 species of terrestrial vertebrates, of which the largest group is birds (211 species), an intermediate position is occupied by mammals (70 species) and reptiles (13 species), and the least numerous are amphibians (9 species). 31 species of land insects, 3 species of fish, 3 species of reptiles, 19 species of birds and 7 species of mammals are registered in the Red Data Book of Ukraine.


Monitoring results and natural observations carried out as part of the EIA for measures to raise the level of Olexandrivske reservoir show that this project will not lead to significant changes in the population of rare species. However, their current state is of great concern, as it is caused by the increased impact of human factors such as recreation, excessive grazing, haymaking, road and utility line construction, open-pit mining operations and others, which lead to a decrease in their population stability.


In 2017, we discussed hydrobiological monitoring at Tashlyk cooling pond and Olexandrivske reservoir. Monitoring efforts are scheduled for 2018, with the results to be published in a separate section of the Environmental Impact Assessment report on the project. The Company allocates additional funds for the conservation of flora and fauna in Buzky Gard National Park and Granitno-Stepove Pobuzhya Regional Landscape Park, for archaeological researches in the bed of Olexandrivske reservoir, geoecological monitoring and seismological monitoring in the area of impact of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant.


Additional measures for assessing impact of the Company’s activities on biodiversity, affected species and territories will be implemented in case of approval of projects for completion of Tashlyk Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Power Plant, the construction of power units No. 3 and No. 4 at Khmelnytska NPP and the environmental impact assessment for Rivne NPP.

ENERGOATOM ALLOCATES 0 % OF FUNDS RECEIVED FOR THE COMPLETION OF TASHLYK HPSPP TO ADDRESS ISSUES FACED BY THE NEIGHBOURING TERRITORIES. OVER THE PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION PERIOD (SINCE 2001), THE COMPANY CHANNELLED OVER UAH 0 M FOR THE SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE REGION.

COUNTERING CLIMATE CHANGE

Nuclear power plants are the largest source of low-carbon electricity among the basic types of power generation. The role of nuclear energy in the context of climate change fight and Ukraine's commitment to the Paris Agreement is highlighted in Ukraine Low Carbon Development Strategy 205032. The Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources published the draft Strategy in 2017. In accordance with the Strategy, Ukraine can achieve climate goals by maintaining a significant role of nuclear energy as a low-carbon energy source among other things. In particular, these efforts include “re-licensing, improvement of performance and efficiency of existing nuclear power plants subject to the strict observance of safety standards, as well as the establishment of an effective mechanism for a nuclear operator to build up resources to finance the decommissioning of nuclear power units”.


Energoatom recognises its contribution to the low carbon future of the country and seeks to continue efforts to minimise greenhouse gas emissions at various production stages. One of such measures was a decision to build a 13.6 MW solar power plant at Zaporizhzhya NPP. The project area is 37 hectares, with the plant consisting of about 5,000 panels. Following implementation of this pilot project, the Company will make a decision on the further action in the field of renewables.

ENERGOATOM СО2 EMISSIONS, 2014-2017


* - In 2017, GHG emissions grew at Energoatom because of over-routine testing of process equipment, primarily overhauled diesel generators at Zaporizhzhya NPP.



A vivid example of advantages of nuclear power plants over other sources of electricity is the comparison of air emissions by Zaporizhzhya NPP and Energodar CHPP located next to it: over the past five years, the gas emissions from Zaporizhzhya NPP made 78 tons, while those from the CHPP were 110,000 tonnes.


ENVIRONMENTAL INVESTMENT

In 2017, the Company put in place a revised Energoatom Environmental Protection Action Programme 2017-2019. The document aims to improve the Company's activities in this area, in particular, to minimise the environmental footprint of non-radiation factors and ensure the rational use of natural resources.


In addition, Energoatom implements a number of environmental measures geared to reduce the environmental impact of the Company's production operations. These measures are a part of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs among other initiatives. The Company heavily invests in energy efficiency measures and environmental technologies.

UAH 0 .2 MILLION IS AN ESTIMATED INVESTMENT IN ENERGOATOM’S ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION PROGRAMMES.

ENERGOATOM ENVIRONMENTAL EXPENSES, 2014-2017, MILLION UAH


As in previous years, the largest share of the Company’s environmental taxes is a tax for generation and storage of radioactive waste. Energoatom will continue to be fully responsible for its environmental financial obligations, comply with laws and regulations, and invest in new technologies.

ENERGOATOM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT TAX, 2014-2017, MILLION UAH

RAISING ENVIRONMENTAL AWARENESS

Stakeholder engagement, in particular Energoatom’s information activity, is regulated by more than 20 regulatory and legal acts. According to the Law of Ukraine On the Use of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Safety, Energoatom is obliged to take outreach measures to ensure the right of citizens and their associations to receive information in the area of nuclear energy use and radiation safety, as well as to engage citizens and their associations in discussions of issues related to the use of nuclear energy. Our information policy is based on the principles of openness, objectivity and efficiency.

ENERGOATOM’S STRATEGIC PUBLIC RELATIONS GOALS

PUBLIC AND TRANSPARENT RULES OF STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT

OPEN INFORMATION POLICY IN PUBLIC AND MEDIA RELATIONS

TRANSPARENCY AND ACCOUNTABILITY

BUILDING RELATIONSHIP WITH STAKEHOLDERS WITH DUE REGARD TO THEIR INTERESTS AND ETHICAL REQUIREMENTS.



    The Company seeks to make its communications efficient and user-friendly, so it uses different means of communications for different target audiences and stakeholders. Among its communication channels are:
  • Printed and online media, corporate newspapers and publications, informational brochures, leaflets and booklets.
  • Official and theme-based pages in social media (Facebook, Twitter, Google+, Slideshare), a YouTube channel.
  • Public hearings and discussions, participation in conferences and roundtables, informal meetings with stakeholders, press tours, etc.

Implementing its Environmental Policy, Energoatom actively interacts with stakeholders whose views are taken into account in the implementation of environmental measures and production operations that could potentially have an impact on the environment.


It is mandatory for the Company’s environmental specialists to participate in public hearings, discussions and consultations held as part of new projects (construction of new power units, extension of the power unit lifecycle and other investment projects). In addition, the Company's major projects involve the development and public discussion of environmental impact assessment reports if required.


Stakeholder complaints and proposals on the environmental aspects of Energoatom’s operation may be submitted either to front offices of the Company's Head Office and its subdivisions or directly during public hearings and public discussions. All complaints and proposals are considered by the Company's specialists and answers are given in accordance with the applicable laws.


Energoatom pays considerable attention to ensure the right of citizens to access public information in accordance with the requirements of the applicable laws of Ukraine and international agreements, in particular the Aarhus Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-Making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters. In total, 74 information requests were received and processed by Energoatom in 2017.


The priority of Energoatom is to adhere to the principles of transparency and accountability. In 2017, Energoatom became one of the two state-owned enterprises included in Top 10 companies under the Transparency and Corporate Social Responsibility Index, with an score of 42%. Annual non-financial report prepared and presented by the Company in 2017 became the first non-financial report presented by a state enterprise in Ukraine according to GRI standards.


Energoatom plans to continue to focus on strengthening the public's trust in information related to operations of nuclear power plants, raise public awareness about the nuclear power, provide prompt, reliable and clear information about the nuclear energy and its safety to everyone.

0 , 0 CITIZENS’ REQUESTS AND REPORTS RELATING TO HOUSING, HR, MATERIAL ASSISTANCE AND OTHER ISSUES WERE RECEIVED BY ENERGOATOM IN 2017.

STAKEHOLDER ENGAGEMENT PLAN FOR COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS

Stakeholder engagement is an integral part of the assessment, management and monitoring of the environmental and social processes associated with Energoatom’s investment projects.


    Stakeholder engagement involves:
  • Dissemination of necessary information to provide insightful consultations with stakeholders;
  • Insightful consultations with stakeholders that are or can be potentially affected and with other stakeholders;
  • Implementation of the policy and procedures encouraging stakeholders to make comments or complaints.

Stakeholder Engagement Plan (SEP)33 was developed by Energoatom to engage stakeholders in the implementation of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs and was put into effect in November 2014. The document regulates stakeholder engagement actions throughout the implementation period up to the completion of the programme. The SEP determines procedures for stakeholder engagement in consultations, preliminary stakeholder lists, schedule of public consultations on the programme, contact information, mechanisms for submission and consideration of questions, comments and complaints regarding the implementation of the programme, including social and environmental aspects.


    In particular, stakeholders include:
  • Employees of Energoatom and NPPs
  • Employees of contractors
  • Residents in NPP satellite cities and NPP supervised areas
  • Central and local authorities
  • International institutions and organisations
  • All stakeholders, both inside and outside the country, represented personally and through local self-governments or non-governmental organisations and institutions
  • Media
  • Other interested national / public-sector organisations and institutions.

Collected and processed questions, comments and complaints from the public are published in the form of appendices to the Q&A Book for the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs34, which also includes questions regarding the environmental impact assessment of the Programme.


During 2017, the Company was receiving questions mainly during public discussions of the EIA report 2012-2016 in Netishyn, Varash and Energodar, during public discussions of the programme implementation and the environmental and social action plan in satellite towns of the nuclear power plants. One question was sent by email. Questions related to social and environmental aspects of the programme, in particular regarding reduction of air emissions, water condition and other issues of the Company's operations.


Every quarter, Energoatom publishes on its website reports on citizens' complaints, in particular, complaints from employees of the Company.

PLANS FOR 2018 AND A MEDIUM TERM

Energoatom is set to continue following the principles of enhanced safety of NPPs and minimising the health and environmental impact in an effort to remain a reliable producer of non-carbon energy.


    The Company’s core environmental activities for 2018 are as follows:
  • Completion of cross-border consultations with parties concerned on the results of the environmental impact assessment for Zaporizhzhya NPP and South-Ukraine NPP;
  • Start of a new procedure for assessing the environmental impact from the operation of power units at Rivne NPP: drafting a relevant report for crossborder consultations to be held in 2019;
  • Continued procurements of LED lamps for lighting systems;
  • Continued implementation of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs;
  • Environmental audit of the Company's operations during the implementation of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs;
  • Green office.