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IMPROVING THE SAFETY CULTURE

VALERIY KRAVETS
Executive Production Director SE NNEGC Energoatom

SE NNEGC Energoatom is aware of its full responsibility for the operation of nuclear facilities that require special training of staff, a special approach to production activities and special understanding of the safety culture by all the people involved in the operation of nuclear power plants. Increasing the safety of nuclear facilities and ensuring safe working conditions for the employees of Energoatom is a top priority on the agenda of the Company.


Energoatom primarily focuses on the implementation of Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP). In 2017, the Company fully implemented the objectives set forth in the Programme and completed about 60% of the Programme initiatives planned for 2020 by the end of the year. Implementing the Programme, the Company can both maximise the safety level at the existing NPPs and extend their life cycle being sure of their reliability.


As a result of military aggression against Ukraine and the hybrid war, the physical protection and radiation safety departments of Energoatom have faced a number of new and challenging tasks. The Company keeps working to increase readiness for possible manifestations of terrorism and sabotage, the threats of the 21st century. International experts recognise Ukraine’s high level of readiness to address these challenges.


In 2017, Energoatom intensified its work on the improvement and development of an integrated management system to strengthen safety and security. During this year, as well as in previous years of the Company’s existence, no incident or emergency classified under INES international scale occurred at the operating NPPs of Ukraine. The levels of emissions and discharges of radioactive substances did not exceed one tenth of permissible limits, and the radiation exposure of staff did not exceed 5% of the annual dose limit.


Employee safety and labour protection remain the priority areas of Energoatom’s operations. In 2017, the Company’s H&S expenses increased by 20% year-on-year, and the number of occupational injuries decreased by half in this period.


The safety culture of the NPPs’ staff is and will always be an indispensable condition for safe operation of nuclear power units. The Company’s objective is to predict and prevent potential incidents as early as at the time of making technical decisions. Energoatom seeks to ensure that every employee of the Company understands that NPP’s safety first depends on his/ her safe culture.

ACHIEVING ENERGOATOM’S SAFETY GOALS IN 2017

Ensuring stable operation with acceptable risks, implementing the public policy in the area of nuclear safety, supporting and improving safe working conditions, and also creating the environment in which each employee recognises and assumes his/her own responsibility for safety make up the important components of Energoatom’s business strategy. The position of the Company on the safety issue, its strategy and the basic principles of its operations are enshrined in Energoatom’s Statement of Policy posted on the official website of the Company.


One of Energoatom’s key principles in the safety area is to maintain the integrated management system, ensure its continuous improvement with account of the interests of stakeholders, comply with legislative and regulatory requirements on nuclear and radiation safety, quality, environmental protection, health, physical protection and occupational safety and thus ensure sustainable development of the Company. In order to improve and develop the integrated management system in safety in 2017, Energoatom set goals and indicators for their achievement:

ENERGOATOM’S KEY SAFETY GOALS 2017 AND INDICATORS FOR MEASURING THE ACHIEVEMENT

GOALS (OBJECTIVES)

Ensure safe operation of the power units

Increase the current safety level at the nuclear plant

Increase the design-basis safety level at the nuclear plant



Ensure effective Emergency Preparedness and Response System


Develop the safety culture

Identify the key processes of the integrated management system of the Company

Prevent any disruptions of the Supplier Evaluation Schedule 2017 through the fault of the Company

Ensure the implementation of Energoatom’s IMS Internal Audit Programme 2017

Organise and hold training sessions for the executives of the Company according to the requirements of the integrated management system

Implement the Action Plan for Standardisation Works at Energoatom in 2017

Ensure the implementation of the Schedule for Production Documents Revision in 2017 and January 2018

Undertake the IMS supervisory audit at Energoatom in 2017

Ensure compliance with the permissible limits of pollutants in natural environments

Ensure reduction in generation of hazardous waste

Ensure compliance with the established permissible levels of gas and aerosol emissions and radioactive discharges

Ensure the NPPS are equipped with the tritium and radiocarbon emission control system

Ensure the implementation of actions to minimise individual and collective exposures of staff to radiation using the ALARA21 principle.

Conduct H&S training, knowledge test and H&S advanced training for the Company’s employees

Provide the staff of separate subdivisions with special clothing, special footwear, other means of personal and collective protective equipment, as well as with safety labels/signs

Continue certification of workplaces in terms of working conditions at separate subdivisions of the Company according to the schedule

Implement the scheduled plans and conduct scheduled, targeted and non-scheduled H&S inspections in the Company

INDICATORS FOR MEASURING ACHIEVEMENT

Prevention of incidents in the operation of Energoatom NPPs (zero accidents)

Current level of safety at NPPs (in terms of quantity) has not dropped from that in the previous year

Permanent downward trend in the evaluated safety criteria (core damage frequency and the frequency of accidental release of radioactive substances into the environment)

Prevention or reduction of the radioactive impact on the staff, population and the environment in case of an incident at an NPP and the emergency caused as a result

Safety culture status (in terms of quantity and quality) has not deteriorated compared to the previous year

Process flow chart

0 cases

100%

32 people

90%

90%

Audit Report

Compliance with the permissible limits of emissions and discharges

Replacement of over 10% of fluorescent lamps with low-energy lamps

0 cases

Compliance with the reference limits and technological limits of tritium and radiocarbon emissions at NPPs

Compliance with the established radiation levels of exposure of staff to radiation

Implementation of the training schedule by 95%. No work access for workers who have not taken the induction training or H&S knowledge test – 100%

Prevention of accidents. Improved occupational safety and work conditions, prevention of occupational injuries

Improved working conditions at workplaces, provision of benefits and compensations for work under hazardous and unhealthy work conditions

Implementation of the scheduled plans. H&S evaluation and improvement according to the applicable laws

COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS (CCSUP)

Ensuring safety of nuclear facilities22, maintaining and improving the safety level of operating power units at NPPs are the top priority objectives for Energoatom. Safety of power units of Ukrainian NPPs is being constantly increased through the implementation of the respective safety enhancement programmes developed for a specified period. Energoatom implements the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP) to further increase nuclear safety, ensure efficient and reliable operation of the energy sector, and bring the safety of nuclear power units of Ukraine to the level that meets internationally recognised requirements for nuclear safety and environmental protection. The Programme runs until 2020. Post-Fukushima actions that focus on emergency power supply are very important elements of the Programme.


The implementation of Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP) is financed with the Company’s own resources, as well as with loans from the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) and Euratom. These funds are allocated exclusively for the purchase of the core equipment to implement some measures specified by CCSUP and only in line with the procedures of European partners.


The loan and guarantee agreements with EBRD and Euratom to a total of EUR 600 million were signed on 25 March 2013 and 7 August 2013, respectively. The loans are extended under government guarantees. The laws on the ratification of government-backed agreements entered into force on 1 June 2014. The loan and guarantee agreements entered into force on 19 December 2014 (the EBRD agreement) and on 28 May 2015 (the Euratom agreement).


In total, 1,295 initiatives have been planned within the framework of CCSUP (taking into account the measures taken before the CCSUP took effect). As of 31 December 2017, 760 initiatives were implemented. In order to implement the initiatives under CCSUP, a number of international contracts was made to purchase equipment with credit facilities: two contracts in 2015, a number of contracts for 11 packages of actions in 2016, and a number of 22 packages of actions in 2017:


  • implement as many activities as possible at power unit No. 3 of Zaporizhzhya NPP
  • implement actions at power units No. 3 of Rivne NPP and No. 4 of Zaporizhzhya NPP to get prepared for the extension of the service life.

Under the terms of the loan agreement, every five years the Company is obliged to carry out an environmental impact assessment (EIA) for the Programme. The first EIA was carried out in 2011. In 2017, following a series of public consultations and the assessment itself (with the engagement of international experts), the EIA findings and conclusions were made public (For more information, please see Protecting the Environment section).




THE CCSUP ANNUAL TARGETS WERE MET 0 % IN 2017.

CCSUP KEY GOALS

INCREASE THE LEVEL OF SAFETY AT NPPS TO BRING IT IN LINE WITH UP-TO-DATE NATIONAL SAFETY STANDARDS;

IMPLEMENT THE RECOMMENDATIONS OF IAEA ON SAFETY IMPROVEMENT AT UKRAINIAN NPPS;

PERFORM THE OBLIGATIONS TO INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS IN TERMS OF SAFETY IMPROVEMENT MEASURES;

REPLACE EQUIPMENT WITH THE EXPIRED SERVICE LIFE WITH STATE-OF-THE-ART FACILITIES;

IMPLEMENT ACTIONS TO PREVENT ACCIDENTS, IN PARTICULAR, ACCIDENTS SIMILAR TO THE DISASTER AT FUKUSHIMA (JAPAN, 2011)

IMPLEMENTING POSTFUKUSHIMA ACTIONS AT NPPS

After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Energoatom conducted a targeted extraordinary assessment of NPPs’ safety (stress tests), which showed that the sequence of events experienced by Fukushima plant was actually impossible for any NPP in Ukraine. Safety enhancement measures, including post-Fukushima actions, are carried out in accordance with the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP). The results of stress tests were used to identify a list of measures to prevent "severe" accidents. The measures are obligatory for the extension of the life cycle of nuclear power units.


    They include:
  • ensure resistance of nuclear facilities to seismic impact of at least to 7 points on the MSK-64 scale;
  • ensure efficient operation of the equipment, which is important for safety, under severe accident environment;
  • introduce forced filtered pressure relief systems for the steam and gas mixture from the containment dome;
  • implement measures to ensure the emergency power supply to steam generators and fuel storage pools amid a long-term total power disruption at an NPP and/or loss of final heat absorber;
  • implement the guidelines for beyond design basis accidents

Overall, Energoatom is supposed to implement 231 measures for 15 power units that have been designed to prevent severe accidents and to carry out 93 new fire-prevention measures within the framework of the Programme. In 2017, 35 post-Fukushima measures were already performed.


In 2017, the Company completed the development and implementation of the guidelines for severe accidents management at all NPPs, implemented measures to replace autonomous air conditioners at power unit No. 3 at Zaporizhzhya NPP, power unit No. 3 at Rivne NPP, and power unit No. 3 at South-Ukraine NPP and introduced a system for emergency removal of hydrogen from the nuclear containment in power unit No. 3 at Zaporizhzhya NPP and a system of early bypassing of containment during the core melting at power unit No. 1 at Zaporizhzhya NPP and power unit No. 3 at Rivne NPP. Moreover, Energoatom installed mobile pumping equipment in power unit No. 3 at Zaporizhzhya NPP, power units No. 1 and No. 2 at Rivne NPP and mobile diesel generators at power units No. 1 and No. 3 at Zaporizhzhya NPP, etc.


It is planned to fully implement the measures at all other power units of Ukrainian NPPs until the end of the project lifetime, but not later than 2020, which is in line with the EU approaches

0 POST-FUKUSHIMA MEASURES WERE IMPLEMENTED AT ENERGOATOM IN 2017.

IMPLEMENTING THE UNIFIED TECHNICAL POLICY

Energoatom applies the leading national and international practices in the operation and modernisation of nuclear power plants in line with the Unified Technical Policy of Energoatom, which the Company follows during the implementation of all the programmes.


This means that the Company implements the same set of measures at all units with the same reactor assembly to improve safety and efficiency, applies uniform technical solutions and techniques, takes holistic approaches to maintenance and operation of equipment, and applies the same requirements to the development and approval of production documents.

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE UNIFIED TECHNICAL POLICY OF ENERGOATOM

  • BEAR RESPONSIBILITY FOR RADIATION PROTECTION AND SAFETY OF NUCLEAR INSTALLATIONS IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE NUCLEAR ENERGY USE LEGISLATION OF UKRAINE
  • USE ONLY TIME-TESTED TECHNICAL SOLUTIONS, PROVIDED THEY ARE EFFECTIVE AND MEET DESIGNBASIS AND REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS
  • TAKE INTO CONSIDERATION PRACTICES AND RESULTS OF SAFETY ANALYSIS WHEN MAKING TECHNICAL DECISIONS

    Examples of compliance with the Uniform Technical Policy at the Company:
  • The list of CCSUP measures is the same for each of the three reactor facility installations: VVER-1000/V-320, VVER-1000/V-302, 338, VVER-440/V-213.
  • Extension of the life cycle of nuclear power units: preparation of power unit No.4 at Zaporizhzhya NPP and power unit No. 3 at Rivne NPP and the next power units for the extension of their life cycle beyond the designed period is carried out in the same way as it was done for power units No. 1 and No. 2 at Rivne NPP, No. 1 and No. 2 at South-Ukraine NPP and No. 1, No. 2 and No. 3 at Zaporizhzhya NPP.
  • During 2015-2017, the Company applied single technical requirements and procurement procedures to 30 types of equipment/products for the systems that are important for the safety and are regularly purchased.
  • Standardisation of technical requirements for CCSUP equipment purchased at the expense of EBRD/Euratom credit funds.
THE UNIFIED TECHNICAL POLICY OF ENERGOATOM INVOLVES AN INDIVIDUAL APPROACH TO EACH POWER UNIT OF THE NPP, SUBJECT TO ITS FEATURES AND A SET OF POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS IN FULL COMPLIANCE WITH THE ACCEPTED GENERAL IDEOLOGY OF ACTIONS.

SAFETY AND SECURITY CULTURE CONFERENCE 2017

Every two years Energoatom organises the International Scientific and Practical Conference on the Safety and Security Culture at NPPs. On 29- 30 March 2017, Kyiv hosted the 8th conference that brought together Ukrainian nuclear producers, representatives of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO), NPP specialists from Slovakia, Bulgaria, Spain, as well as AREVA and Westinghouse Electric.


The conference focused on prevention of cyberattacks and cyberterrorism, digital software protection against unauthorised access and physical protection of hardware and software involved in production processes at NPPs.


The participants also paid significant attention to the tools for managing labour productivity in the context of the safety culture and the results of the international project for improvement of the safety culture at Energoatom. This project lasted from 2011 to 2016 and one of its key stages was a comparative analysis of the best international practices and Energoatom’s safety culture actions.


There is an effective safety and security culture management in place at Energoatom. It is very important that the management of the Company has a clear understanding that it is not so important who is personally guilty of one or another violation, but it is more important what was the reason for the violation.

IGNACIO ERMANA, a representative of Spanish company Iberdrola


Following the results of the conference, its participants emphasised that the security and safety culture becomes increasingly important in the nuclear industry, as it is one of the fundamental principles ensuring safe operation at NPPs. To maintain and enhance the safety level, the Company analyses all the events occurring in the nuclear power industry. The Company does everything it can to ensure and increase the safety level of the NPPs by taking into account the world’s best practice and lessons learned. It is common practice for Energoatom to assess the safety and security culture at the plant. Safety enhancement is seen as a complex task for continuous improvement in the industry.

PUBLIC HEARINGS ON COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS

As part of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs (CCSUP), Energoatom is also implementing the Environmental and Social Action Plan and the Stakeholder Engagement Plan. The current version of the Environmental and Social Action Plan was agreed by EBRD in 2015. The requirements and activities specified in the Plan cover all environment and social activities of the Company and its separate subdivisions. As part of the implementation of the Environmental and Social Action Plan, the Company updated Energoatom’s Statement of Policy and the websites of nuclear power plants, certified Energoatom’s management system according to international standards ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001 and joined EURDEP international radiological data exchange systems on the part of Ukraine.


The Stakeholder Engagement Plan of the Company identifies the list of stakeholders, engagement procedures and the schedule of CCSUP discussion sessions, as well as provides contact information and mechanisms for submitting and considering questions, comments and complaints.


Energoatom regularly holds public hearings on the implementation of the plans in the satellite towns of Ukrainian NPPs. In the reporting period, the latest public discussion of CCSUP took place at NPP sites in Energodar, Yuzhnoukrainsk, Varash, and Netishyn in October-November 2017. Preceded by a briefing in Kyiv, the public hearings were attended by residents of the NPP satellite towns, as well as of the settlements within a 30-kilometer supervised area. Following the hearings, minutes of discussions and supplements to the Q&A Book on the Programme and CCSUP Environmental Impact Assessment were made.

PUBLIC HEARINGS ON IMPLEMENTATION OF THE COMPLEX (CONSOLIDATED) SAFETY UPGRADE PROGRAMME OF POWER UNITS OF UKRAINIAN NPPS IN 2017

20 November 2017

Energodar

65 participants

21 November 2017

Yuzhnoukrainsk

27 participants

23 November 2017

Varash

52 participants

24 November 2017

Netishyn

47 participants



NUCLEAR, RADIATION AND PHYSICAL SAFETY OF NPPS

Energoatom operates NPPs in strict compliance with the provisions of the laws of Ukraine On the Use of Nuclear Energy and Radiation Safety, On Human Protection against Impact of Ionizing Radiation, provisions of Radiation Safety of Ukraine, the Basic Sanitary Rules for Radiation Safety of Ukraine, and requirements of international organisations and EU Directives.


    The operation of NPPs is supervised by national regulatory bodies:
  • State Nuclear Regulatory Inspectorate of Ukraine controls technical measures aimed at ensuring safe operation of nuclear power plants;
  • Ministry of Health of Ukraine provides supervision over the application and compliance with hygiene regulations;
  • Ministry of Ecology and Natural Resources of Ukraine oversees compliance with national environmental legislation.

Supervision over nuclear, radiation, ecological and fire safety is provided directly at the NPPs by ministerial supervisory authorities and fire safety departments, as well as by the Directorate for Safety Supervision at Energoatom.


The environmental impact of NPPs t is rated by the levels of emissions and discharges of radioactive substances into the environment, with the main substances contributing to the radiation dose being gas and aerosol emissions of inert radioactive gases, iodine radionuclides, long-lived nuclides and water discharges of radionuclide cesium-137, cobalt-60, tritium and others.


The level of these emissions is calculated as a percentage of the relevant permissible limits established for each NPP and agreed with the Ministry of Health of Ukraine. The radiation monitoring at the Company’s NPPs is carried out in accordance with the Radiation Control Regulations, which establish the types, facilities, frequency, methods, technical means and the list of control parameters. Each NPP develops the radiation control regulations.

IN 2017, NO ACCIDENTS OR EMERGENCIES WERE REGISTERED AT UKRAINIAN NPPS UNDER THE INTERNATIONAL NUCLEAR AND RADIOLOGICAL EVENT SCALE (INES). ALL DISRUPTIONS IN THE OPERATION OF NPPS WERE RATED ON THE INES SCALE BELOW SCALE / LEVEL 0.

RADIATION MONITORING

A number of organisational and technical measures have been implemented at the NPPs of Ukraine to ensure the radiation safety of staff and exclude the negative impact of the NPPs on the environment and the population.


The NPP sites have been equipped with the automated radiation monitoring systems (ARSMS), which allow prompt receipt of information from the control posts, conduct a systematic data analysis and provide a forecast of radiation conditions for all settlements in a 30-kilometer supervised area of the NPPs.


ARSMS operates mobile control posts installed on offroad vehicles. They are equipped with the appliances for monitoring radiation, chemical and meteorological parameters, including field monitoring, and provide a possibility to calculate coordinates and transmit information using satellite communications. The system includes meteorological complexes that can determine over 30 meteorological parameters and carry out remote sensing of atmosphere.


Information comes to the central checkpoint, the radiation control panel, the internal and external crisis centres and is posted on the stations’ websites. Data are updated every two minutes.

ARSMS AT KHMELNYTSKA NPP CONTROL OVER THE GAMMA BACKGROUND AT KHMELNYTSKA NPP IS CARRIED OUT BY 15 ARSMS POSTS. THE GAMMA BACKGROUND IS FROM 0.06 TO 0.12 MSV/H, WHICH CORRESPONDS TO THE MEASUREMENTS MADE BEFORE THE CONSTRUCTION OF THE NUCLEAR POWER PLANT ("ZERO BACKGROUND"). AVERAGE DAILY EMISSIONS OF RADIOACTIVE SUBSTANCES INTO THE ENVIRONMENT AT KHMELNYTSKA NPP ARE 500 TO 20,000 TIMES LOWER (FOR DIFFERENT GROUPS OF RADIONUCLIDES) THAN PERMISSIBLE LIMITS.

THE FOLLOWING ENVIRONMENTS ARE SUBJECT TO THE RADIATION CONTROL:

SURFACE WATERS AND RIVERS

ATMOSPHERIC AIR

UPPER LAYERS OF SOIL

BOTTOM SEDIMENTS OF RESERVOIRS AND RIVERS

ALGAE

FISH

FOOD OF PLANT AND ANIMAL ORIGIN.



The NPPs also regularly monitor the content of radioactive substances in the natural environments in the area of nuclear power stations.


The long-term statistics and independent control measurements show that the nuclear power plants have minimal impact on the population and the environment. Since early 2017, as in previous years, the actual levels of emissions and discharges of radioactive substances in percentage terms have not exceeded 0.1% of the permissible limit. In 2017, the average annual radiation dose for NPP personnel who serve nuclear facilities did not exceed 1 mSv, which constitutes 5% of the annual dose limit for personnel of this category (20 mSv).

PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF NPPS

Energoatom regularly carries out targeted organisational and practical measures to ensure uninterrupted and smooth operation of physical protection systems for nuclear facilities, nuclear materials, radioactive waste, other sources of ionizing radiation at nuclear power plants, as well as to increase their security against threats of terrorist and/or sabotage.


One of the important components of physical protection, safety and security of NPPs is the efficient functioning and interaction of the public system of physical protection and the Single State System for Prevention, Response, and Termination of Terrorist Acts and Minimisation of their Consequences.


Anti-Terrorism Centres have been established at all NPPs of the Company to prevent, detect and terminate acts of terrorism and/or sabotage. In addition, supervisory control centres have been established in the Company and at all NPPs. They are equipped with the necessary means of communication, notification, collection, analysis and information transmission. Starting from 2014, the Company has had a plan of measures in place to implement the Concept of Combating Terrorism at Nuclear Power Plants for 2014-2020.


All nuclear power plants annually conduct management and employee drills, tactical and special training and antiterrorism training courses with the engagement of parties directly involved in the fight against terrorism.



ANTITERRORIST AND COUNTER-SABOTAGE TRAINING AT NPPS IN 2017

on 22-31 may
Rivne NPP hosted a special tactical training session to develop preparedness of participants of the Facility Interaction Plan at Rivne NPP for joint actions to respond to sabotage at the facility in case of a crisis situation caused by illegal actions of external and internal offenders. The training session was attended by 360 employees.
on 30 may
Khmelnytska NPP held a tactical training on the response of participants of the Facility Interaction Plan who are based at the plant’s industrial site to events with the signs of a sabotage in the protected zone of Khmelnytska NPP. The event trained 50 employees.
on 14-15 september
South-Ukraine NPP held a tactical training on the response of participants of the Facility Interaction Plan to events with signs of sabotage (terrorist attack) during the transportation of fresh nuclear fuel. The training session was a separate element of the tactical and special antiterrorist and anti-sabotage training course organised by the Anti-Terrorism Centre of the Security Service of Ukraine in Mykolaiv Oblast on 11-15 September. The training involved 150 staff members.
on 3-5 october
A tactical training on the response of participants of the Facility Interaction Plan in case of a series of sabotage acts in the territory of Kamianka-Dniprovska District of Zaporizhzhya Oblast, Energodar and at Zaporizhzhya NPP. The training was held at the site of Zaporizhzhya NPP and engaged 390 people.



During 2017, the NPPs’ anti-terrorism centres were organised. They prepared and held management and staff training sessions jointly with the representatives of the Company and the Security Service of Ukraine to verify the consistency of the Facility Interaction Plan in case of sabotage at NPPs with the emergency plan. During the drills and training sessions, it was established that the systems of physical protection and safety and security arrangement provide sufficient countermeasures to tackle the design basis threats of nuclear power plants.


The Technical Assistance Programme funded by the US Government is being implemented to strengthen the firepower of protection military units of the National Guard of Ukraine to protect nuclear power plants. The units are to be re-equipped with modern models of armoured vehicles, communications equipment, armour protection, etc. The NPP specialists have developed projects and started works on the manufacture of mobile checkpoints.


Works are underway to reconstruct and technically re-equip the existing physical protection systems according to modern models in order to ensure physical protection for nuclear facilities and nuclear materials. These measures stay high on the Company’s agenda.

EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

The Emergency Preparedness System of Energoatom is designed to achieve the practical goal of emergency preparedness, which is defined in the IAEA requirements.


The Company has adopted Basic Measures of Energoatom Emergency Preparedness and Response System in case of Accidents and Emergency Situations at the NPP up to 2020 to respond to radiation accidents or other negative factors that may arise as a result of disruptions in the normal operation of the electricity market due to the armed conflict in Ukraine. The implementation of these measures ensures the necessary support and helps further improve the high level of preparedness for emergencies.


To date, the Company has identified all high-risk facilities at all NPPs, approved a list of facilities to be equipped with automated systems for early emergency detection and staff alert and developed schedules for their implementation at each production unit.


In January 2017, the Company put into operation the RODOSUkraine real-time online decision support system based on the European RODOS and designed for national-scale accidents or transboundary radionuclide accidents.


On 21-22 June 2017, Energoatom participated in the IAEA international training ConvEx-3. Under a scenario of a simulated severe accident at the Paks NPP in Hungary, Energoatom obtained a unique opportunity to verify in real-time the atmospheric transfer models developed using the RODOS system.


On 5-7 September 2017, representatives of the Ministry of Defence, the US Department of State and Energoatom participated in the joint Ukrainian-American command-staff training on response to the RCBN threats within the framework of the Preparedness for Response to Radiological, Chemical, Biological and Nuclear Threats (RCBN).


The availability of emergency plans, emergency response plans, their efficiency and readiness for their implementation was once again verified during a joint general emergency training session held for NPPs and Head Office at Rivne NPP on 4-5 October 2017.


In 2017, all of the Company’s separate subdivisions were audited for preparedness for response to radiation and nuclear accidents, as well as to man-caused and natural emergencies. In general, during the year, as well as in previous periods, Energoatom and its separate subdivisions fully complied with the requirements of the nuclear power laws and civil protection regulations.

HEALTH AND SAFETY/h2>

Energoatom takes all the efforts to create the safest and most comfortable working conditions for its employees in accordance with the H&S legislation requirements. General Provisions on NPPs’ Safety (NP 306.2.141-2008) identifies the requirements to the safety culture. The document is based on the IAEA recommendations, national and international practices and expertise in operation of nuclear power plants. Since 2009, Energoatom has put safety culture actions as an ongoing item on the agenda and has been implementing them through the specially developed Action Plan.


    The Action Plan is scheduled for two years and should include the following three levels:
  • Technical Policy of the management in the area of safety and security
  • Responsibilities and duties of the management
  • Personal responsibility and obligations of each employee.

In 2017, the Company developed the Programme of Specific Actions for Creation and Development of Safety Culture at Energoatom for 2017-2018. In addition to the measures developed in follow-up of a previous programme and the safety culture audit, the new Programme includes measures from the Plan of Specific Actions for Safety Culture Improvement and Management at Energoatom.


    These measures require the implementation of the recommendations of Iberdrola acting as a consultant in the project “Assistance in the Development of the Safety Culture Improvement Programme at NPPs”, including:
  • Improvement of the existing human and organisational factor programme;
  • Improvement of the sectoral programme on safety and security culture,
  • Development of an internal communication plan
  • A number of other safety-critical recommendations.

The Programme specified creation of a “non-punishment” culture in the Company. Such measures are expected to increase the efficiency of the accident liability process and help reduce the number of low-level events, as well as near-miss events at the Company’s NPPs.


The Programme 2017-2018 complements and systematises many years of Energoatom’s expertise in the safety culture development and will contribute to continuous safety improvements.


The results of the implementation of the Programme in 2017 were discussed at a meeting of the Safety Culture Board on 14 February 2018. The Board meeting recognised the Programme’s implementation as satisfactory. The results showed that 66% of the measures had been implemented and 11% of the actions were still in progress with the timelines to be moved to the year 2018 (due to the complexity and scale of activities). As to other measures (23%), they become due after 31 December 2017.

SAFE WORKING CONDITIONS

Creating safe and harmless working conditions is one of the priorities of the Company’s operations. We strive to ensure the effective functioning of H&S management system to prevent occupational injuries and occupational diseases. This is a key mechanism for ensuring occupational safety at Energoatom.


The H&S objectives of the Company are defined in Energoatom’s Objectives to Improve and Develop the Integrated Safety Management System for 2017. They are also reflected in the regulations, instructions, H&S work plans and are implemented in accordance with the plans.

ENERGOATOM’S KEY H&S GOALS (OBJECTIVES) FOR 2017

GOALS

Hold H&S training sessions, test H&S knowledge and organise H&S advanced training for the Company’s employees






Provide the staff of separate subdivisions with protective clothing, special footwear and other means of individual and collective protection and safety labels and signs




Continue certification of working conditions at workplaces in separate subdivisions of the Company according to the schedules



Perform schedule plans and conduct scheduled, targeted and non-scheduled H&S inspections

INDICATORS FOR MEASURING ACHIEVEMENT

  • Preparing training schedule, organising knowledge tests and advanced training
  • Issuing protocols of knowledge checks and certificates
  • Preparing a tender offer
  • Providing financial resources
  • Concluding H&S training agreement

  • Preparing consolidated annual applications for procurement of personal and collective protection means and security labels for staff
  • Preparing a tender offer
  • Providing financial resources
  • Conclusion a procurement agreement

  • Creating commissions, publishing organisational/ administrative documentation
  • Conducting research, assessing the degree of hazard (risks) and the hazard of production factors at workplace
  • Issuing administrative orders based on the certification results

  • Creating commissions, publishing organisational/administrative documentation
  • Preparing inspection statements, instructions, corrective measures
  • Monitoring the implementation of corrective measures

In November 2017, the Company brought into force Energoatom H&S Management System and the Methodology for Hazard Identification, Assessment and Management of Life and Health Risks for Energoatom Employees. Separate subdivisions and the Head Office put into place relevant H&S management system regulations and Hazard Identification and Risk Assessment Map.


    Energoatom applies and improves its H&S management system in accordance with the following requirements:
  • OHSAS 18001:2007 “Occupational Health and Safety Management System. Requirements”
  • OHSAS 18001:2010 “Occupational Health and Safety Management System. Requirements”
  • Labour Code of Ukraine
  • Law of Ukraine On Occupational Safety
  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 994 dd. 27 June 2003 “On Approval of the List of H&S Measures and Actions”
  • Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine No. 1232 dd. 30 November 2011 “Procedures for Conducting Investigations and Recording Accidents, Occupational Diseases and Accidents at Work”
  • Regulations on H&S Management System at Power Plants and other legislative and regulatory acts.

The Law of Ukraine On Occupational Safety requires that H&S expenses should make at least 0.5% of the Company’s payroll in the previous year. Under the Energoatom collective bargaining agreement 2017, H&S expenses in the Company’s separate subdivisions with harmful, difficult and dangerous production factors shall make at least 7% of Energoatom’s payroll in the previous year. As to other separate subdivisions, H&S expenses shall be specified by laws. In 2017, these expenses amounted to 6.17% of Energoatom’s payroll fund 2016. Compared to 2016, the Company’s H&S expenditure increased by 20%.

IN 2017, ENERGOATOM SPENT OVER UAH 0 MILLION ON PROCUREMENT OF H&S TOOLS AND IMPLEMENTATION OF H&S ACTIONS.

ENERGOATOM H&S EXPENSES, 2014-2017, MILLION UAH

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES

Energoatom regularly takes actions to prevent occupational injuries and occupational diseases, as well as to detect, assess and minimise occupational risks. As a result, this helped reduce the number of occupational accidents from eight in 2016 to four in 2017.


The Company annually develops and implements comprehensive measures to achieve the established standards of safety, occupational health and working environment, increase the existing H&S level, and prevent occupational injuries, occupational diseases and accidents (H&S Comprehensive Measures).


    To prevent injuries in separate subdivisions of the Company, we take the following measures depending on their operations:
  • Analysing on a mandatory basis the causes and circumstances of all non-occupational accidents with the staff
  • Holding H&S Days on a monthly basis, organising comprehensive and targeted H&S inspections in subdivisions according to the schedules, publishing information about H&S and occupational injuries in the Company’s newspapers, installing information stands at the Company’s subdivisions, including the information on the results of injury investigations
  • Conducting audits of contractors to confirm their ability to perform high hazardous works and operate high-risk equipment.

Energoatom plans and holds annual actions dedicated to the World Day for Safety and Health at Work. In 2017, the World Day for Safety and Health at Work was held under the motto “Improving the Collection and Use of Occupational Health and Safety Data”. One of the main H&S indicators is the level of occupational injuries. LTAFR and FAFR characterise the situation with the occupational safety, safe working conditions, and accident prevention work conducted with the staff.

IN 2017, ENERGOATOM IMPLEMENTED 0 H&S COMPREHENSIVE MEASURES WORTH OVER UAH 0 MILLION IN TOTAL.

OCCUPATIONAL INJURIES AT ENERGOATOM, 2015-2017




In 2017, no occupational diseases, accidents, group accidents and fatal work-related accidents were registered at Energoatom. The Company registered only four work-related accidents, with no women engaged.


Zaporizhzhya NPP – two incidents
Rivne NPP – one incident
South-Ukrainian NPP – one incident.


The accidents were caused by the failure to fulfil responsibilities and H&S requirements, violations of H&S requirements during equipment operation, structural defects of a condensate collector hatch, engagement of unskilled employees, admission to work without H&S training and knowledge test, as well as non-compliance with production guidelines.


The Company investigated all cases of injuries, analysed production risks, developed and implemented the appropriate measures to minimise occupational risks and prevent such violations that resulted in injuries of employees.




EMPLOYEE H&S TRAINING

The H&S training for employees is designed to create proper, safe and healthy working conditions, prevent accidents and occupational diseases, and protect the health of workers during operation of equipment. Energoatom organises H&S training sessions in accordance with the requirements of the Law of Ukraine On Occupational Safety and a number of regulations of the Company.


In 2016, special courses on performance of high-risk work at Energoatom amounted to 47,082 man-courses, and the figure reached 48,924 man-courses in 2017. In the reporting period, NPPs held 265 facility training sessions including the firefighting drills with engagement of firefighting squads. They were attended by 8,788 people.

IN 2017, THE COMPANY SPENT UAH 0 , 0 , 000 TO ENSURE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF FIRE PROTECTION MEASURES (INCLUDING FIREFIGHTING DRILLS FOR EMPLOYEES).


FIREFIGHTING DRILLS AT NPPS

The participants of the drill had to extinguish a simulated fire and conduct rescue works in a cable cellar on a rack of electrical devices at power unit No. 4. In total, the training engaged 9 rescue fire trucks, 40 people from a special rescue fire squad, 65 members of the emergency response staff and the control point of the plant.
The participants had to extinguish a simulated fire in the premises of the information computer system. During the training, they practiced emergency response procedures including the fire brigade callout, meeting the fire and rescue units, issuing permits for fire suppression, provision of assistance in connection with the grounding of firefighting equipment and suppression of a simulated fire together with the firefighting squads. The fire brigades were extinguishing fire in a smoke filled environment, saving victims and interacting with the plant’s staff and emergency medical service. The training involved 6 fire-fighting machines, 24 firefighters, and emergency response staff of Khmelnytska NPP and a medical post.
The participants of the training worked on a situation with the shutdown of a main circulating pump, a simulated fire in the lubrication system premises at power units No. 5 and No. 6. The drills involved 18 special-purpose firefighters, 78 employees and 4 units of the fire-fighting equipment: 2 tank trucks, 1 dry powder fire truck and 1 smoke ejector exhauster truck.
The participants of the training worked on a situation where an oil spill and ignition of the main oil tank of the generator shaft sealing occurred following a series of events. A simulated fire was detected on two panels of the engine room. The total area of ignition was 135 square meters. The drills involved 9 units of equipment and about 40 special-purpose firefighters from 3 firefighting squads of Yuzhnoukrainsk Fire and Rescue Corps, as well as NPP emergency response staff.



EMPLOYEE AND OFFICER LICENCING

Officers responsible for organisational and management functions involving nuclear radiation safety perform their job responsibilities on the basis of licences. These roles include: the Company’s President, First Vice President –Technical Director, General Inspector, Director for Safety Supervision, as well as officers at NPPs: general director, chief engineer, chief inspector, deputy chief engineer for nuclear and radiation safety. In addition, employees replacing the officers and NPP shift supervisors hold 42 and 47 licences, respectively. Licence terms and conditions are observed.


Licenced workplaces are staffed with employees holding a sufficient number of licences to ensure smooth operation of shifts. Candidates are trained for licenced positions as scheduled. In 2017, the training centres at nuclear power plants trained 50 candidates for licenced positions. During the year, 50 to 70 candidates were taking training courses to obtain licences. In the reporting period, the churn of licenced employees was 35 people, of which 19 were promoted to licenced positions. The churn of licenced employees results primarily from high demand for Ukrainian specialists from NPPs under construction in Belarus, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates and other countries.

NUMBER OF LICENCED POSITIONS, 2014-2017, PEOPLE


KHMELNYTSKA NPP SHOWS THE BEST H&S PERFORMANCE

In 2017, Khmelnytska NPP won a nationwide competition as the Best Company in H&S. The contest was initiated by the State Labour Service. That year, 42 companies from all over Ukraine submitted applications for participation in the event.


The participant evaluation criteria included effective functioning of the H&S management system, creation of safe and healthy working conditions, actions taken to develop the H&S culture, H&S drills, level of occupational injuries and occupational diseases, etc.


The commission was provided with relevant documents and materials confirming that Khmelnytska NPP carries out its H&S activities in accordance with the laws of Ukraine, national and international H&S management standards.

INTERNATIONAL CERTIFICATION OF H&S MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

Energoatom has successfully completed the compliance audits against the requirements of OHSAS 18001:2007 “Health and Safety Management System. Requirements”.


    In an effort to continue implementation of the standard, the Company has developed corrective measures to address specific issues, namely:
  • completing the development and getting approval of Energoatom’s regulations on H&S management system
  • implementation of the Methodology (Procedures) for identification of hazards, health and life risk assessment and management for employees of power generating companies
  • development of the Hazard Identification Map and assessment of the associated health and life risks for the Company’s employees, taking into account the specific nature of the activities of separate subdivisions.

In 2017, the Company worked together with the National Research Institute of Industrial Safety and Occupational Health to develop Energoatom’s H&S management system on the basis of DSTU OHSAS 18001:2010.


The assessment of the safety culture at the Company’s subdivisions is carried out every two years and was last performed in 2016. The next employee survey will be in 2018. In December 2018, the Company plans to summarise and analyse results of the employee survey and disclose them in a consolidated report to be submitted to the Company’s Safety Culture Board.

PLANS FOR 2018 AND A MEDIUM TERM

Protecting potentially hazardous facilities and NPP employees has always been and will always remain a priority in dayto- day operations, short-term and long-term plans of the Company.


Energoatom has planned to implement about 150 measures within the framework of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs in 2018. Out of these, 46 actions include procurement of the equipment at the expense of credit funds. This will help the Company allocate the remaining funds to cover the needs of other power units. We plan to implement 70 activities for power unit No. 4 at Zaporizhzhya NPP and power unit No. 3 at Rivne NPP: the Company is preparing to extend their operational lifetime beyond the design term in 2018.


In addition, next year the Company plans to conclude all contracts for actions to be financed by EBRD/Euratom. The equipment supplied under these contracts is to be installed by 2020, when the loan and guarantee agreements with EBRD and Euratom get expired.


It is planned that the resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine regarding the increase in total costs of the Complex (Consolidated) Safety Upgrade Programme of Power Units of Ukrainian NPPs will be also approved in 2018. Since the Programme is valid until 2020, the Company faces a challenge to implement about 520 CCSUP measures in three years. To this end, the Company is set to take maximum financial, technical and HR efforts.


In addition, in 2018, we plan to continue the implementation of the Programme of Specific Actions for Creation and Development of Safety Culture at Energoatom for 2017-2018. The Programme will complement and systematise many years of Energoatom’s expertise in the safety culture development and will contribute to continuous safety improvements. Action Programme 2019-2020 will be developed in early 2019 following the results of the programme implementation in 2017-2018. In March 2019, the Company plans to hold the 9th International Scientific and Practical Conference on Safety and Security Culture at NPPs.